It is the main components inside the system unit. It is the biggest electronic circuit board inside the computer system to which many other boards are attached. The boards that are attached to the mother board are known as Daughter Board or Expansion Board.
All the electronic components of a computer are connected to it. These include both internal part of the system unit like processor, display card of the monitor, sound card, memory etc. and external parts like mouse, keyboard etc. Ports and slots are used to connect these components.
The important parts of a mother board are:
1) Processor Socket
The processor in a modern computer is an integrated circuit (I.C.) chip. A chip consists of millions of transistors and capacitors which can process the data obtained through input devices and transfer the result is use to fix the processor in a mother board.
The two main part of a processor are arithmetic and logical unit (ALU) and control unit (CU). A fan is often fixed on the processor to remove the heat generated by continuous activity. This fan is known as Processor Fan.
2) Interface Slots
The slot in a mother board that are used to connect add on the cards are called Interface Slot.
3) Memory Slots
The slot where the RAM board which has to interact constantly with the mother board, is fixed to the mother board is called Memory Slot. RAM chip is also an integrated circuit. There are several RAM slots in a mother board.
The connection of the parts within and outside the system unit is done using ports or connectors. These ports are connected directly to the mother board. Different types of ports are below:
i) IDE Port (Integrated Drive Electronic Port)
This port is used to connect a hard disk, CD-ROM drive, CD writer or DVD drive to a mother board. There are two such ports in a mother board. First is primary and second is secondary.
ii) FDD Connector (Floppy Disk Drive Connector)
It is used to connect a floppy disk drive to mother board. The size of the FDD connector and number of pins is smaller than IDE port.
Serial Port or Communication Port
It is used to connect mouse or modem. In a communication port, there are either nine or twenty five pins.
A parallel port has holes to connect pins. For example printer, scanner etc. are connected through the parallel port.
USB Port (Universal Serial Bus Port)
It is available in modern computers. Many devices can be connected to serial and parallel port. A large amount of data can be transferred at a very high speed through USB port. Two or more USB ports are seen in a mother board.
Electrical supply for the working of the computer can be provided through the power port. It is located at SMPS.
Connecting the mouse
A mouse can be connected to a computer system in one of the following ways:
i. Using a serial port
ii. A bus connection
iii. PS/2 port mouse
iv. USB port