# Syllabus of Programming and Problem Solving Through Python Language for O Level

**Syllabus of Programming and Problem Solving Through Python Language** **(M3-R5)**

**(i)** **Introduction to** **Programming**

The basic Model of computation, algorithms, flowcharts, Programming Languages, compilation, testing & debugging and documentation.

### (ii) Algorithms and Flowcharts to Solve Problems

Flow Chart Symbols, Basic algorithms/flowcharts for sequential processing, decision based processing and iterative processing. Some examples like: Exchanging values of two variables, summation of a set of numbers, Decimal Base to Binary Base conversion, Reversing digits of an integer, GCD (Greatest Common Divisor) of two numbers, Test whether a number is prime, factorial computation, Fibonacci sequence, Evaluate ‘sin x’ as sum of a series, Reverse order of elements of an array, Find largest number in an array, Print elements of upper triangular matrix, etc.

### (iii) Introduction to Python

Python Introduction, Technical Strength of Python, Introduction to Python Interpreter and program execution, Using Comments, Literals, Constants, Python’s Built-in Data types, Numbers (Integers, Floats, Complex Numbers, Real, Sets), Strings (Slicing, Indexing, Concatenation, other operations on

Strings), Accepting input from Console, printing statements, Simple ‘Python’ programs.

### (iv) Operators, Expressions and Python Statements

Assignment statement, expressions, Arithmetic, Relational, Logical, Bitwise operators and their precedence, Conditional statements: if, if-else, if-elif-else; simple programs, Notion of iterative computation and control flow –range function, While Statement, For loop, break statement, Continue Statement, Pass statement, else, assert.

### (v) Sequence Data Types

Lists, tuples and dictionary, (Slicing, Indexing, Concatenation, other operations on Sequence datatype),concept of mutability, Examples to include finding the maximum, minimum, mean; linear search on list/tuple of numbers, and counting the frequency of elements in a list using a dictionary.

### (vi) Functions

Top-down approach of problem solving, Modular programming and functions, Function parameters, Local variables, the Return statement, DocStrings, global statement, Default argument values, keyword arguments, VarArgs parameters.

Library function-input(), eval(),print(), String Functions: count(), find(), rfind(), capitalize(), title(), lower(), upper(), swapcase(), islower(), isupper(), istitle(),

replace(), strip(), lstrip(), rstrip(), aplit(), partition(), join(), isspace(), isalpha(), isdigit(), isalnum(), startswith(), endswith(), encode(), decode(), String: Slicing, Membership, Pattern Matching, Numeric Functions: eval(), max(), min(), pow(), round(), int(), random(), ceil(), floor(), sqrt(), Date & Time Functions, Recursion.

### (vii) File Processing

Concept of Files, File opening in various modes and closing of a file, Reading from a file, Writing onto a file, File functions-open(), close(), read(), readline(), readlines(),write(), writelines(),tell(),seek(), Command Line arguments.

### (viii) Scope and Modules

Scope of objects and Names, LEGB Rule

Module Basics, Module Files as Namespaces, Import Model, Reloading Modules.

### (ix) NumPy Basics

Introduction to NumPy, ndarray, datatypes, array attributes, array creation routines, Array From Existing Data, Array From Numerical Ranges, Indexing & Slicing.

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