Operators are used to perform operations on variables and values.

**There are following operators in Python**

Arithmetic operators

Assignment operators

Comparison operators

Logical operators

Identity operators

Membership operators

Bitwise operators

1. **Arithmetic Operators**

Arithmetic operators are used with numeric values to perform common mathematical operations:

**Operator Name Example**

+ Addition x + y

- Subtraction x - y

* Multiplication x * y

/ Division x / y

% Modulus x % y

** Exponentiation x ** y

// Floor division x // y

**Example:**

x = 15

y = 4

print('x + y =',x+y)

print('x - y =',x-y)

print('x * y =',x*y)

print('x / y =',x/y)

print("x%y =",x%y)

print('x // y =',x//y)

print('x ** y =',x**y)

**Output:**

x + y = 19

x - y = 11

x * y = 60

x / y = 3.75

x%y = 3

x // y = 3

x ** y = 50625

**2. Assignment Operators**

Assignment operators are used to assign values to variables:

**Operator Example Same As**

= x = 5 x = 5

+= x += 3 x = x + 3

-= x -= 3 x = x - 3

*= x *= 3 x = x * 3

/= x /= 3 x = x / 3

%= x %= 3 x = x % 3

//= x //= 3 x = x // 3

**= x **= 3 x = x ** 3

&= x &= 3 x = x & 3

|= x |= 3 x = x | 3

^= x ^= 3 x = x ^ 3

>>= x >>= 3 x = x >> 3

<<= x <<= 3 x = x << 3

**3. Comparison Operators**

Comparison operators are used to compare two values:

**Operator Name Example**

== Equal x == y

!= Not equal x != y

> Greater than x > y

< Less than x < y

>= Greater than or equal to x >= y

<= Less than or equal to x <= y

**4. Logical Operators**

Logical operators are used to combine conditional statements:

**Operator Description Example**

and Returns True if both statements are true x < 5 and x < 10

or Returns True if one of the statements is true x < 5 or x < 4

not Reverse the result, returns False if the result is true not(x < 5 and x < 10)

**5. Identity Operators**

Identity operators are used to compare the objects, not if they are equal, but if they are actually the same object, with the same memory location:

**Operator Description Example**

is Returns True if both variables are the same object x is y

is not Returns True if both variables are not the same object x is not y

**Example:**

x1 = 6

y1 = 6

x2 = 'Hey'

y2 = 'Hey'

x3 = [4,5,6]

y3 = [4,5,6]

print(x1 is not y1)

print(x2 is y2)

print(x3 is y3)

**Output:**

False

True

False

**6. Membership Operators**

Membership operators are used to test if a sequence is presented in an object:

**Operator Description Example**

in Returns True if a sequence with the specified value is present in the object **x in y**

not in Returns True if a sequence with the specified value is not present in the object **x not in y**

**Example:**

a = 'Hello world'

b = {1:'x',2:'y'}

print('H' in a)

print('hello' not in a)

print(1 in b)

print('x' in b)

**Output:**

True

True

True

False

**7. Bitwise Operators**

Bitwise operators are used to compare binary numbers:

**Operator Name Description**

& AND Sets each bit to 1 if both bits are 1

| OR Sets each bit to 1 if one of two bits is 1

^ XOR Sets each bit to 1 if only one of two bits is 1

~ NOT Inverts all the bits

<< Zero fill left shift Shift left by pushing zeros in from the right and let the leftmost bits fall off

>> Signed right shift Shift right by pushing copies of the leftmost bit in from the left, and let the rightmost bits fall off

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